In a unanimous opinion with one concurrence, the Oregon Supreme Court yesterday upheld the dismissal of a large class action of smokers who sought injunctive relief for "medical monitoring, smoking cessation and education." Plaintiffs are some 400,000 smokers who have no present symptoms, but sought to have a group of tobacco companies fund a program to cover the cost of CT scans and other diagnostic tests to identify future harm from smoking. Even though they lack of any present injury, plaintiffs contended they could maintain an action for such relief based on the defendant tobacco companies' negligence. The Court disagreed, holding that a common law negligence claim requires a present physical injury: "The complaint does not allege that plaintiff has suffered any present physical harm as a result of defendants' conduct. The complaint alleges only that plaintiff has suffered a 'significantly increased risk of developing lung cancer' in the future." The Court continued:
"Oregon law has long recognized that the fact that a defendant's negligence poses a threat of future physical harm is not sufficient, standing alone, to constitute an actionable injury. As this court has explained, 'the threat of future harm, by itself, is insufficient as an allegation of damage in the context of a negligence claim.' Zehr, 318 Or at 656; see also Bollam v. Fireman's Fund Ins. Co., 302 Or 343, 347, 730 P2d 542 (1986) (holding that "'[t]he threat of future harm, not yet realized, is not enough'") (quoting W. Page Keeton, Prosser & Keeton on Torts 165 (5th ed 1984)). As Prosser explains,
Since the action for negligence developed chiefly out of the old form of action on the case, it retained the rule of that action, that proof of damage was an essential part of the plaintiff's case. Nominal damages, to vindicate a technical right, cannot be recovered in a negligence action, where no actual loss has occurred. The threat of future harm, not yet realized, is not enough. Negligent conduct in itself is not such an interference with the interests of the world at large that there is any right to complain of it, or to be free from it, except in the case of some individual whose interests have suffered.
Keeton, Prosser & Keeton on Torts at 165 (footnotes omitted). Accordingly, a plaintiff's cause of action does not accrue, and the statute of limitations on that cause of action does not begin to run, until the plaintiff has suffered an "'actual loss.'" Bollam, 302 Or at 347 (quoting Prosser and Keeton on Torts at 165)."
You can find the full opinion here.